Neurodiversity is a term used to describe the unique variations in brain chemistry that can cause people to perceive the world and react to it in different ways. It is often associated with autism spectrum disorder (ASD), but it encompasses a much broader range of neurological differences. Several recognized types of neurodivergence include autism, Asperger syndrome, dyslexia, dyscalculia, epilepsy, hyperlexia, dyspraxia, ADHD, obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) and Tourette syndrome (TS). Neurodivergent individuals think, behave and learn differently than those who are neurotypical. In the past, different types of neurodiversity have been viewed as deficits, but it is important to understand them as simply differences that can provide advantages or unique ways of perceiving the world.
For example, dyslexia is a learning disorder that affects areas of the brain that process language and can make reading difficult. However, people with dyslexia often have strong visual representation skills and can excel in other areas. Similarly, people with ADHD may struggle with sustained concentration, but they can also be incredibly energetic, creative and athletic. Other types of neurodivergence include Tourette syndrome, dyspraxia, synesthesia, dyscalculia, Down syndrome, epilepsy, and chronic mental illnesses such as bipolar disorder, obsessive-compulsive disorder, borderline personality disorder, anxiety and depression. Even if you have not been formally diagnosed with any of these conditions, you may still identify with some of their descriptors. Promoting acceptance of neurodiversity has grown to include all types of neurodivergents.
Neurodiversity is still a relatively new concept and its full scope is not yet precisely defined. However, understanding the different types of neurodiversity and the strengths they offer can help us better appreciate the unique ways in which our brains work.